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Fixed or Variable Mortgage, Which Should You Pick?

买房是大多数人做过的最大的财务承诺. 整理抵押贷款涉及很多关键的选择. 其中之一是在固定利率抵押贷款和可变利率抵押贷款之间进行选择.

顾名思义,固定利率抵押贷款利率在整个贷款期限内都是固定的. 相反,可变利率贷款的利率可以随着时间的推移而变化. 可变贷款的抵押贷款利率通常基于一个指数, which means payments could move up or down, depending on prevailing interest rates.1

固定利率抵押贷款有优点也有缺点. 例如,利率和支付保持不变,尽管利率气候. But fixed-rate loans generally have higher initial interest rates than variable-rate mortgages; the financial institution may charge more because if rates go higher, it may lose out.

If prevailing interest rates trend lower, 固定利率抵押贷款持有人可以选择再融资, and that may involve closing costs, additional paperwork, and more.1

With variable-rate mortgages, the initial interest rates are often lower because the lender is able to transfer some of the risk to the borrower; if prevailing rates go higher, 可变抵押贷款的利率也可能向上调整. 可变利率抵押贷款可以让借款人利用利率下降的机会而无需再融资.1

可变利率抵押贷款提供的最大优势之一可能也是它们最大的劣势之一. 利率和还款是会变化的,在贷款期限内它们可能会上升.

Should you choose a fixed or variable mortgage? Here are four broad considerations:

First, how long do you plan to stay in the home? 如果你打算在卖掉房子之前住一段时间, you may want to consider a variable-rate mortgage. 在较短的期限内,贷款向上或向下移动的时间会更短.

Second, what’s happening with interest rates? 如果利率低于历史平均水平,考虑固定利率可能是有意义的. On the other hand, if interest rates are above historic averages, 考虑浮动利率贷款可能是有意义的. 然后,如果利率下降,你的利率可能也会下降.

第三,在什么条件下,贷款人可以调整利率和支付? How frequently can it be adjusted? 每个时期的调整幅度有限制吗? 利率和还款上限是否有终身限制?

第四,如果利率大幅上升,你还能负担得起每月的还款吗? 如果你的还款达到了它的期限,并持续一段时间,这会对你的财务产生什么影响?

For most, buying a home is a major commitment. 选择最合适的抵押贷款可以使长期债务更易于管理.

1. Investopedia.com, April 23, 2021

平均利率:30年,固定利率抵押贷款

According to the Federal Reserve Bank of St. 路易斯,30年期固定利率抵押贷款的年平均利率是3.94 percent in 2019.

Average Interest Rate

Source: FRED.StLouisFed.org, 2020

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